There has been another little "drip" of information concerning alternative energy sources, in this case, cold fusion, with the grant of a patent to Italian cold fusion researcher Dr. Andrea Rossi, whose story we have intermittently followed on this website.This story, shared by Mr. K.H., is worth studying carefully for any number of reasons, but primarily we're interested in two main approaches: (1) the general principles of patent law in the western tradition of jurisprudence, and (2) the actual claims of Rossi's patent itself. On both counts, the story is significant; here's the article:
You'll note first of all that some of Rossi's patents have been non-published for various reasons, some having to do with legal and treaty provisions of the status of patent filings in several countries simultaneously. Additionally, you'll note that under U.S. patent law, there is no necessity nor need - thank goodness - to provide a comprehensive theory as to what a certain device works. Indeed, as Mr. David French, the patent attorney examining this patent, notes, this particular patent appears to have been prepared by a particularly competent patent attorney:
Unlike other applications filed on behalf of Rossi, and indeed many patent applications filed around the world, the disclosure in this case is relatively short and to the point. This is a sign of good patent draftsmanship. The patent disclosure contains no discussion of theory. In fact, some readers will find this disappointing; but the reality is that it is not required for an inventor to disclose a theory supporting why an invention works. It is enough for the disclosure to provide sufficient direction to enable a skilled workman in the field to reproduce the useful results promised by the disclosure.
This patent has the signs of having been drafted by a particularly competent patent attorney. The preamble section under the titles Field of Disclosure and Background are about as short as you could ever expect. In fact, under Field of Disclosure the text simply provides: “This disclosure relates to heat transfer systems, and in particular to devices for transferring heat to a fluid.”(Emphasis added)
So in other words, no claim is being made that this device produces its energy by any process of "cold fusion" or any theory - low energy nuclear reactions or lattice assisted nuclear rections - behind it.
We get some idea of the actual structure of Rossi's device from this patent, and in this, we find some possible grounds for some high octane speculative "dot-connecting". The central "core" feature of Rossi's device is a "layered wafer" of materials which is insulated in mica through which an electrical current is passed, while it is immersed in a tank of fluid:
We may search Claim 1 for further limitations that may be unnecessarily specific or over limiting. For example, heat is provided to the “fuel” by the presence of an “electrical resistor [which] is in thermal communication with said fuel mixture and said catalyst”. While this language is so vague as to be difficult to visualize, the disclosure outlines a structure described as follows:
“multilayer fuel wafer 32 includes a heating section 34 sandwiched between two fuel sections 36, 38. The heating section 34 features a central layer 40 made of an insulating material, such as mica, that supports a resistor 42. FIG. 4 shows an exemplary central layer 40 having holes 44 through which a resistive wire 42 has been wound”,
“The entire set of layers is welded together on all sides to form a sealed unit. The size of the wafer 32 is not important to its function. However, the wafer 32 is easier to handle if it is on the order of 1/3 inch thick and 12 inches on each side.”
This is described in other claims of the patent as a "fuel wafer"; for example:
5. The apparatus of claim 1, wherein said fuel wafer comprises a central heating insert and a pair of fuel inserts disposed on either side of said heating insert.
The chemical composition of this layered wafer are given elsewhere, with some potential loopholes:
Analyzing Claim 1 for infringement we note the necessary requirement: “wherein said fuel mixture comprises lithium, and lithium aluminum hydride”. Is it essential that lithium be present, apart from being a component of lithium aluminum hydroxide? Did Dr Parkhomov include lithium in his mixture? Apparently not: “640 mg Ni + 60 mg LiAlH4”. This suggests that lithium may not be necessary in order to obtain an LENR effect. But if the presence of elemental lithium enhances the generation of excess energy, then this is an invention in its own right, and merits the granting of patent exclusivity.
On the other hand, if it turns out that elemental lithium need not be present in order to achieve the useful, commercially relevant effect, then this claim has an “loophole”. Patent applicants and their attorneys are expected to labor long and hard in order to draft claims that do not have a “loophole”.
Addressing another possible loophole, if the lithium aluminum hydride serves only as a source of hydrogen, is it essential for the aluminum to be present? Other sources of hydrogen could include magnesium hydride – MgH2; calcium hydride – CaH2; sodium borohydride – NaBH4 and lithium borohydride – LiBH4 as examples. Cf “Thoughts on attending ICCF-19 in Padua by David French”.
So, while we get some ideas from this patent - very specific ones in fact - we are still left with areas of ambiguity and several questions that the patent does not cover(after all, it's a patent, and doesn't have to provide a theory, only the assertion of clearly stated claims). Mr. French, in the above comments, points out a few of them: is lithium aluminum hydride the only compound that will produce the reaction? Or could other compounds work just as efficiently.
So where's the "high octane dot connecting" and speculation here?
It's in the wafer itself, and in its layered and thin structure alternating between the fuel itself, and the insulator. If that sounds familiar in some general respects, it should, for a similar wafer-like and layered structure of dialectric and insulating materials was used by Thomas Thownsend Brown in his "electro-gravitic" experiments, and, one might even go so far as to mention some of the thin, wafer-life layered materials allegedly recovered from various UFO crash or landing sites, the layers of microthin bismuth and magnesium from one such "recovery" come to mind. And for those really paying attention, the immersion into a "fluid" even resembles some of the descriptions of an alleged crashed UFO at Roswell, at least, according to some of the so-called Majestic-12 documents(see my Reich of the Black Sun, and SS Brotherhood of the Bell).
Of course, all of this dot-connecting merely on the basis of "layering" and "wafering" materials, immersing them in a fluid, and passing an electric current through them, may be nothing more than sheerest bizarre and ultimately unfounded speculation. And that's the point, for if someone else notices these suggestive dots, and starts experimenting with the ideas, and finding data and evidence, then we may be looking at something that really does connect a few discrete areas of inquiry, from T.T. Brown's "electrogravitics" to cold fusion reactors. Conversely, if experimentation should show no connection, then we may abandon the "dot connecting" as an hypothesis that was not born out by research. Either way, it would seem to be worth the effort to do.
And in the meantime, all high octane speculation aside, the granting of the patent on August 25 2015 to Dr. Rossi indicates that the slow-drip-erosion of the petroleum and fission-based energy system of the world continues. And that means in its turn a vast change in the system of finance.
See you on the flip side...