MY UMPTEENTH READING OF THE ANTI-FEDERALIST PAPERS
I'm departing from my normal practice today and am not blogging about an article that readers sent me, but rather, just to share a few interesting quotations that, I hope, will be thought-provoking.
Recently I received a catalogue of books from Dover Publications, and in its "thrift books" section, it included a collection of some of the Anti-Federalist papers. Dover's "thrift books" are little paperbacks very reasonably priced. This little edition of some of the Anti-Federalist papers cost only six dollars, so I purchased it, and have to say that the papers collected within it were nicely chosen and ordered.
But beyond this, one thing struck me in this latest re-reading; the prescience of some of the anti-federalists with where we are now.
For example, over and over again in the little Dover edition, the warning cry against the Philadelphia convention's creature was that it would inevitably issue in aristocracy; perhaps we might call it today a "plutocracy". "John DeWitt" in his third essay of 5 November 1787 "To the Free Citizens of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts" stated this:
Now therefore is unquestionably the proper time to examine it (the current constitution), and see if it really is what, upon paper, it appears to be. If with your eyes open, you deliberately accept it, however different it may prove in practice what it appears in theory, you will have nobody to blame but yourselves; and what is infinitely worse, as I have before endeavoured to observe to you, you will be wholly without a remedy.
Upon attentive examination you can pronounce it nothing less, than a government which, in a few years, will degenerate to a complete Aristocracy, armed with powers unnecessary in any case to bestow, and which in its vortex swallows up every other Government on the Continent. In short, my fellow-citizens, it can be said to be nothing less than a hasty stride to Universal Empire in this Western World, flattering, very flattering to young ambitious minds, but fatal to the liberties of the people. (Dover edition, pp. 48-49.)
George Mason, one of the more well-known anti-federalists, was even more succinct in his predictions, being one of Virginia's delegates to the Philadelphia convention, and one of three delegates to the convention who refused to sign the document on the convention's conclusion, along with Elbridge Gerry and Edmund Randolph. We are constantly reminded of the usual narrative that their refusal was based solely on their concern that the document lacked a Bill of Rights. However, over and over the warnings of "aristocracy" and "corruption" occur, sometimes within, and sometimes outside of, a context of concern about such a lack of a Bill of Rights. No such context for Mason's remarks occurs here:
This Government will commence in a moderate Aristocracy; it is at present impossible to foresee whether it will, in its Operation, produce a Monarchy, or a corrupt oppressive Aristocracy; it will most probably vibrate some Years between the two, and then terminate in one or the other. (Boldface emphasis added)
Beyond this general warning, what comes across in this edition and arrangement of some of the anti-federalist papers is that the concern about "aristocracy" is a general template informing their opposition to the system, and that this was the root of their concern about the absence of a Bill of Rights, their critiques of the preamble, their concerns about the power of the judiciary and the open door to judicial activism (or, in some cases, the lack of judicial action), and so on.
In the current situation, people are turning to renewed study of the document and its promoters and advocates.
But I would offer that it is now even more important to revisit the sadly all-but-forgotten papers of the loyal opposition...
See you on the flip side...
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When this particular party started I was out of town. With so many thoughtful responses provided already I thought perhaps I had very little to contribute to the dialogue–until today. A few weeks ago I wrote a piece with linkages for the articles of secession by South Carolina from the United States just before the War of Northern Aggression started. I reread them again. Though nothing is cited directly there about some of the issues proposed by Dr. Farrell here, I am convinced that hovering the background some of these issues are in play. Industrialists in the Northeastern United States depended on the institution of slavery for building navies and ensuring proper capitalization for their manufacturing capability while ensuring proper labor was available for the acquisition of raw materials from Southern climes. Southern capitalists remained, for the most part, quite insecure in the use of slave labor in principle but silently continued the practice for proper capitalization of their plantations in national and international trade. Both groups, at this point, came to represent a separation within the aristocratic institutions of both regions in their economic vision. Southern states did not want to become sole hostage to the sectionalist economic policies of the North and needed their own economic foundation for their own industrialization efforts. The Northern states did not want the competition–and strongly desired the agricultural assets of the South for their own local and continental markets–which included the Southern states of whom they wanted to hold hostage. A century before, those antifederalists who opposed the Constitution, and the aristocracy they saw in formation, were not just prescient in their thinking. They knew many of the families harboring these economic ambitions–and were trying to prevent them from taking control of the whole federation of states for the furtherance of their plans. Today’s situation is not that much different–which is why they are so aggressive in this oligarchy attempts to bury the past. One cannot have another constitutional debate with these documents lying around. If not properly stocked said convention would quickly spiral out of their control. That is a thing which they must prevent. I believe they want another convention–but one whose outcome can be predicted and whose aims further their goals. Aristocracies exist not only to make money, but to cement their families into positions of power for generations to come. It’s as much about blood as it is money. This is why such should be dreams must be denied–or all is lost!
Especially, your concluding two lines.
Thank you. I posted in haste–warts and all. We desperate need an edit capability because I now have the time to clean it up. I’m surprised you and / or ZDB didn’t call me out on this. Thank you for giving a tired, middle-aged man a break.
CONFLICT: Fauci’s Daughter Is A Software Engineer At Twitter, A Company Which Suspends People For Disagreeing With Her Father.
Reminds me of Dennis Wheatley’s classic novel “To the Devil a Daughter” 🙂
Amazon Polly did a video a few months ago; Fauci’s wife Christine Grady worked worked at NIH, she is/was Chief of Bio-ethics in The Human Subject Research section.
Another huge conflict of interest.
Dr. Fraudi reminds me of this expert:
Both are humorous in their knowing they’re fooling the public;
one maliciously, indeed at it most sinister;
while, the other does it humorously, to entertain.
The difference between a nightmare & a daydream.
Dr. Fraudi’s daughter sterilizes the data;
while her farther sterilizes the people.
Both took the faux shot.
The farther probably sterilized the data needle points;
as he knew, his daughter couldn’t handle the truth.
Lying about lie becomes fake true, and that is empty shell of fake opposition.
Needle pricked hot air balloons go out with a fizzle.
So, Robin in Sherwood invented game of dart.
Sharp wit felt dull boring.
For any who have not heard of Sacha Stone, it is well worth listening to some of his videos in the Spirit of Personal Sovereignty!!(sachastone.com)
I bought a copy of “The Complete Anti-Federalist” (ISBN-13: 978-0226775753), edited by Herbert J. Storing about 11 years ago for something like $400. I don’t have a clue why almost none of the content or context is taught. This edition seems to be unavailable now.
When there are only TWO options, then it is a trap, because the THIRD option is suppressed.
The THIRD option is, to outflank the problem, by going outside the box, and around it.
That is called Plato’s Cave (Plato’s Casino), in epistemological gamble with the brain.
Lao Tzu calls it Tao.
Cuomo Invites All Accusers To Come Forward And Gather In New York Nursing Home
Like his ancestors did on Valentine’s Day?
Ah, come on Robert.
I’m happy to see the press have put him in their crosshairs; not in for the kill, as they did for Trump; but, I’ll settle for this apparent change of venue.
Take the following in context,
as Governor Gangster Cuomo replies to his accusers:
The Babylon Bee writers were very clever in their wordsmithery; “… meet me in this nursing home, where I can be sure you are… taken care of”, Governor Cuomo said.
“I would hate if anything were to happen to you before got the chance to tell your truth, Sunny Acres is the place to be – – and there will always be plenty of free parking[meaning residents and/or recent visitors; will be moving rather quickly up to that sunny acres in the sky?].
Governor Gangster Cuomo[GCC] then continues, “As you can see, this is the ideal local for bringing the many thousands of accusers and finding out what they have to say. They’ll be safe here — eternally safe”.
Then GCC continues, “… if any accusers didn’t feel comfortable, meeting him at the nursing home, they were more than welcome to come meet him down at the docks at midnight”.
Kudos to the Babylon Bee writers!
And ZDB for picking this up & posting it!
I certainly don’t care for Cuomo. That’s for sure, but he does have the right to be innocent until he’s found guilty… strictly for all the reasons Trump and others have had to endure from a legion of demons called “me too” which frankly I’m sick of.
Except, as Bugs Bunny or Grouch Marx would say…
“This means war!”.
And despite what they say the good side does in war;
truth is the first victim.
And this is a war on all fronts…
A 10,000 year old war…
Where, you’ll either resonate w/the machine…
Or, w/the living universe[spirit]…
I laughed out loud when I read the headline! Thanks for that, zdb 🙂
Not one to add a flashpoint to your “high octane speculations,” but there lacks one presently unless it is suggestive of an aristocracy in plain sight trying to break out amongst the populace who know better. That presumptive minority class (you know who) who think themselves of leadership capacity that obviously and quite brazenly lack the appropriate accoutrements to convince the most dullard of classes.
Loyal opposition has a place in governance. It’s the opposition type associated with fraud, corruption, narcissistic self-serving interests, that play the dirty game of cutthroat politics that do not yet never waste an opportunity attempting to usurp what isn’t theirs.
Federalist’s and anti-federalists were likely meant to coexist in order to make a more perfect union of a nation under God with liberty and justice for all. That may seem fanciful but with the freedom of expression to explore the possibilities in a changing environment, it is a reasonable pursuit.
One can appreciate the remarks from John Dewitt even if he hasn’t the last words to be said. There’s something to be said about having it in writing for those who find that rights and behavior are not quite self-evident as one might hope yet remains enduring. In today’s computer parlance, reliably backed up in two or more locations and on at least two different and reliable backup media will help.
The separate states Do have their own powers to legislate and check the powers of the Federal government. They need only function as state governments. They’re already targets for radicals, special interest groups (the billionaire class manipulators), “K” Street and Wall Street operatives, belt way bureaucracies, and outside influencers. Step up! Bring along both copies – The Constitution of the United States of America and Articles of Confederation – As well as a copy and understanding of why the Declaration of Independence was drafted in the first place.
There are times when an entrance exam for placing their names on an election ballot should be tendered prior to voting and only after scrutinizing motivations, opportunities, and intent(s) should the vote be taken under close scrutiny.
I am present in Norway, to make sure, that Norwegians are going to be hung by the neck. I am public about that statement, and that is brutality, in response to genocide.
Point is, that all fake oppositions are like false friends, looking for an opportunity, to stab a knife in the back. There is only one way to deal with that. They can run, but not hide.
Oligarchy must necessarily have controlled both sides, to establish federal government in America, otherwise the superstructure would automatically have fallen apart.
Both sides are lying through their teeth.
If only it were so easy.
When both positions are untrue, then one is caught in a dilemma.
When unable to change the fact, then one can change one’s observation of the fact.
Animals do not have morals, they have instincts of survival.
A fast gunslinger draws purely on instinct. That is Heathen.
Observations are analogous to witnessed facts. Interpretations of both are subject to acceptance of all parties involved as witness.
That is absolutely correct. Old English “dom” is a truth agreed upon, endorsed by gathering.
To circumvent that, is – of course – outlaw.
Nevertheless, it is my cultural upbringing, that challenging consensus, is stepping outside the group, to defend the group.
That is the holy act of pilgrimage.
I use to have both The Federalist Papers and The Antifederalist Papers but lost them. I have The Federalist Papers but I wish to have The Antifederalist Papers as well. It is interesting neither of these collections is taught in the US school systems are our elites afraid of the unwashed masses finding out they have been taken for a ride so to speak.
Knowledge is power, withholding knowledge makes the powerful more powerful.
Certainly seems that way.
Most vital matter !
Some keywords :
-stop misnaming things
-Never give power to the rich
-suppress professional politicians : they are the worst possible
-suppress elections : they only consist in choosing our masters
-we must write our constitution ourselves
-immediately : Referendum on all matters
With English subtitles, some thoughts by Etienne Chouard, a teacher who woke up as a warrior in 2005 when he discovered the “European treaty” we voted against in spite of a mind-blowing propaganda.
The war is still ongoing, he is still targeted and he does not give up. He has inspired groups all over the country who worked at writing the Constitution and proved people can do it and will do itt.
Étienne Chouard : Le tirage au sort comme bombe politiquement durable contre l’oligarchie
SORTITION as a politically sustainable bomb AGAINST OLIGARCHY
Marseille le 23 avril 2011
Neither aristocracy nor democracy can be defined, as long as royalty stays illusive.
The only way is to use the Anglo-Saxon definition CYN+ING, as the original definition.
It means less continental Arthurian romances, and more solid Old English wordcraft.
Druidry is open for business!
Tous les matins du monde:
(anakephalaiosis, the reason I cannot answer any of your posts is that I am unable to understand them.
Also I am very much lacking time and even many other posts that I don’t fully understand I must give up trying to reply to them because of the risk of misunderstanding.
I don’t even have time to read all of Joseph’s articles.)
That is UNDERSTANDABLE, because not even Englishmen are taught proper English.
Today, English – as modern lingua franca – is 1/3 French, 1/3 Latin and 1/3 Old English.
Scandinavians believe, that knowing the NAME of a troll, is gaining POWER over it.
This should be taught in primary school:
I am afraid I did not understand the meaning of your link either. What is proper English, I wouldn’t swear even if I were English, because having studied ancient French at the university, together with German and ancient German, what striked me first is the kinship between all those european languages (English included).
Drifting further in my exploration of spoken language (I began my life as a mute child and ended up writing poetry, because I never coped with linear language to express anything deep and the multiple branchings of Human thinking) I researched in Sanskrit. And again what striked me is the impression that some words (or word roots) were rolling through different languages taking and leaving parts of their meaning in the journey (the sanskrit “atman” becoming “atmen” in german for example), even sometimes landing with inverted meanings, probably due to the many instances of dictatorships across time, that turned reality upside down with their motto : “obey, don’t trust what you see with your own eyes”….
When you speak of LAGUNA for example, it is an italian and french word as well. So who laid the egg ?
In Germany it was funny, I remember some people said they were impressed that I could master so many “intellectual” german words… Well those greek and latin words are part of the french lay language and being sure of their meaning, I used them preferably to hasardous germanic words : nothing intellectual on my side.
Comparing ancient French with German/English brings striking similarities and repeated patterns of sounds/letters being modified as the words travel. I eventually came across the work of a german-french team who believe almost all spoken languages stem from a germanic root… Problem solved, eh ?
Who laid the egg is actually the only interesting thing to me, because I am certain that Human Kind at the origin did not need spoken language, because we could communicate directly with our thoughts (and still can, if we only refuse to “know” we can’t).
I believe spoken language has been set to REPLACE our natural main way of communicating, because spoken language is LINEAR and you can express nothing complex with it, unless you use poetry (like ancient greek is literally made of, ancient french is full of, etc.).
Linear language is a mode of control on our species.
You are correct. Languages travel and change, and yet ideas within the languages remain the same. The SEVEN SUFFIXES are a cluster of ideas, that create a mental map, for the mind to travel. SEVEN SUFFIXES are yoga of language.
A. TOPOLOGICAL METAPHOR OF “PANORAMIX”:
1. Grassland meets woodland.
2. Landway meets seaway.
3. River is blood of earth, that transcends land and sea.
4. Mesopotamian “Ea” is river, in Old English.
5. Ten tribes came through Caucasus, by river, into Europe.
6. Norse pantheon, Aesir, are those who came by Ea, the river.
7. Bards flow rivers in words spoken.
HEART OF BEOWULF
Man from Snowy River went Godspeed,
placing all his trust in four feet,
and God, the only one,
was final run,
in free rein of heart steed.
B. THE DARK SIDE:
1. Jesuit Jacobins are builders of linguistic Babel Towers, to guillotine head and tongue of Bard.
2. Revolution is chaos, with ocean of people (lagu) overthrowing the law (lagu). LAGU is a paradox, where PROBLEM contains SOLUTION.
3. Roi, the regent rex, as ruler of reign, is only a title, whereas Cyning is a self-explaining word, to its original meaning.
4. Pope Satan is emperor of oligarchy, throughout all ages, who infiltrates, by Jesuit moles stirring revolution.
5. Jesuits played both sides, in the European wars of religion, and in both world wars.
6. SEVEN SUFFIXES are a linguistic gūnpowder plot, to bring down the Tower of Babel.
7. When Odin is recognized as Adonai, then the cosmic dance reaches perfection – in linguistic yoga – from Caucasus.
Gurdjieff – non-conform coordinated telepathy:
Druidic yoga mat, with bark of cork oak:
Beyond normal language, there are abstract non-linear principles, that are decisive to language creation.
These 32 principles – the sundial in Notre Dame – are the source of BOTH language and NATURAL social contract.
Mastery of the system was a 20 years Druid study. Simplified as much as possible:
These principles are attributed to Odin/Adonai, who is attributed, to the astronomical & agricultural year cycle (Elohim & Yahweh).
Spent over 6 years on the Island witnessing, up close, spoken English by the English. Enjoyed every moment.
There was something about how they regularly pronounce [vitamin] & [aluminum] initially that one had to consult several dictionaries (Merriam-Webster Collegiate (American) and traditional Oxford English (English dictionary) for clarification. Was not about to argue over how they pronounce words in their language in their country. Turns out there’s a deeper history in word use and propagation to fathom that involves phonetical learning of letters of the alphabet and rules of pronunciation due to where letters are properly arranged in words from old English to current English.
Reciting the letters of the alphabet singularly, for instance, is different. Sounding out the letter as it is used rather than sounding it out in a word form with attached vowel sounds – (g) instead of (gee) or (k) instead (k-ay) – both are consonants, not vowels, where there is a constriction of the vocal tract in conjunction with palate, teeth, or lips. Vowel sounds are made with minimal vocal tract constriction. Some folks suggest that is where the English accent comes from in contrast to how American vocalization originates. The learning of and regular use of the phonetic learning of the letters and groups of letters contributes to the English vocabulary as well as its role in how the speech centers recognize, interpret, and use the vocal apparatuses to form speech sounds.
Don’t worry about this, Danse!! Many times, many of us do not understand what anak. is talking about, but once in awhile something rings true!! He is coming at things from a whole different knowledge base!!!
Glad you are aboard here!!! 😉
Thank you Loxie Lou Davie for your so kind words ! I am very happy that you understand my posts. You make me feel much more secure because often I wonder if my tentative english would mean anything at all. (Already in french sometimes people ask me “who are you ?”, “where are you from?”… the “cartesian” minds.)
Copy and paste remarks you are curious of into Google’s translation page.
Easy and quick.
Copiez et collez les remarques qui vous intéressent dans la page de traduction de Google. facile et rapide
Dear Billy Bob, the automatic translaters are ok for linear posts and common ways of speaking. There, where I don’t need them.
How about “the party of the east going west” and other ways of speaking, where I might understand the individual words, but still not the meaning ?
I don’t remember ever discussing sortition. Interesting concept, I’d volunteer for the draw. It almost happened to me during the Vietnam war, luckily the draft was cancelled but still have my card.
Sortition is well known though. There are two good reasons why all is done to suppress knowledge of sortition :
-The only case where the courts are not corrupt are the courts that juge crimes, because people to form these courts are sent there by sortition.
-The terrible fear of the vampires are that the people would reestablish the death penalty, and they keep saying “you can’t have sortition in politics because the plebeians would reesttablish the death penalty, and we would go backwards into the “dark ages” ” : they know we would reestablish the death penalty but exclusively for them, the real organizers of genocides against Humanitty.
Rotating amateurs of the republic – by sortition – are cannibals drawing straw, about who is for dinner.
Roman guards threw dice, beneath the cross, gambling about the costly garment, for their enrichment.
Spectators, beneath the guillotine, were gambling – on whether the last gaze of the beheaded – would be a fearful one.
Ludomania is folly in utopia.
It’s looking more and more likely that juries are being rigged. Seems they have data bases with personality files on everyone and pick the ones most likely to rule in their favor. At least in the US it seems to be the case. Just men will use the system they created when justice can be found there. When justice can no longer be found in their system just men will make their own. The people rigging everything don’t understand the nature of their genetic opposition, which is a third of humanity by natural selection. If they did they would know what this naturally leads to. Mother nature through natural selection has her own checks and balances built into the human species.
The Twentieth-Worst Century form of justice today is a…
” jury arbitration”. If you google the enemy, “they” tell you that your case is brought before a retired judge or panel of attorneys and you receive a decision from them instead of a courtroom, judge & jury.
Then just below that is an article from The Guardian:
Eight Reasons Arbitration Is Better Than A Jury Trail.
And, as you write Roger; they’re even fixing the jury.
This kind of justice is but a reflection of “their” new religion: Scientism.
I haven’t seen or heard of the concept of sortition since jr high back in the late 70’s. If I remember right, it was frowned upon as it could be highjacked/usurped by a special interest group or demographic. Here’s a refresher of sorts. I don’t know how accurate this is…
Even as cracked-up as the Bill of After Thoughts is; it is not enforced.
Even the Supreme Court of Denial; continues to rewrite it; along w/the Legislature; and Executive, w/countless manufactured orders.
The writing was on the wall; for those, like George Mason, to see and warn others. Much like today; easy for most here to see; but not those who purposely blind themselves; or, succumb to the crowd and/or “expert”,
At any rate; even w/a better document[Declaration of Independence]; it requires eternal vigilance and an educated public. A public that would make information key, and perhaps a public utility; like banks, health, power, and – you get the idea/context. It takes a participating public in the politics of the day.
Qualified drawers need only be of good character and uncorrupted and not too rich. We gave many of those in our civilization.
I remember being told about the Federalist paper in civics class. The presentation was digested down to the battle of big government vs small government. I don’t remember a discussion and the ramifications. Perhaps by that time the teacher was already on board with big government. I do remember the mention of DeWitt but not his remarks and ramifications.
I compare and view our political set up to franchise business model. Each of the fifty states has a franchise to the United States of America per the constitution’s rules and regulations. If corporate headquarters (Washington DC) fails to develop the means to promote their growth and increase the betterment of the franchisees, the franchise can drop the franchise brand and continue as an unaffiliated business with it’s customer base, the citizen of that state. In this model the citizen has a vote as in any coop. It’s up to them to hold their management team accountable by ejection from leadership positions in their state. Unfortunately most citizens don’t or won’t take time to do this and we have what we have. Living free is hard work and our work ethic is currently missing in action.
VATICAN HOT AIR BALLOON
Pope Satan in land of confusion,
built his Babel foundation,
in word soup literal
being cloaked conversion.
Natural principles of social contract, in natural state:
Thought provoking topic – thank you. Also, thank you for the tip on Dover Publications; it looks like a treasure trove of inexpensive great reads – wonderful!
I am especially pleased that others (e.g., Joseph) will take the time to compare what is happening today with what was historically promised. My label for this is tracking, and I’m sure many people on this site can attest that it happens rarely if ever in politics. Accountability would be another word for it.
The myth of the US being “one country” has meant the loss of the average person understanding how the system was supposed to work in the first place. Case in point: I am citizen of my state of residence, not of the US. The unconstitutional 16th Amendment (income tax) makes it seem otherwise.
States still have power to do as they wish but rarely do. Nice to see Florida’s governor giving Biden the middle finger. Hope other governors will follow suit. I don’t see a peaceful solution to Federal overreach other than through State governors asserting their powers.
So, after this article I spent some time reading on the Mises Institute site about Austrian Economics. Do you think that the US having states goes against the Austrian Principle of Economics – Free Market Capitalism?
JF mentioned the Anti-Federalists not too long ago — and since I am trying to remedy my political- and historical-numbnutzness I finally started doing what I do in areas of business – research (it’s why Giza is my first stop with my morning coffee). It’s not that I didn’t have a vague idea of what the Federalists were – I mean, I’ve seen the architecture and know the constitution, but the term Anti-Federalist was just one of those blurry words I’d skim over like it was Un-American or something. History — yawn! But, what a mistake, especially in light of everything that is happening in the world right now. I found the following article to be very lucid and part of my remedy.
“The Antifederalists were opponents of ratifying the US Constitution. They feared that it would CREATE AN OVERBEARING CENTRAL GOVERNMENT [emphasis added], while the Constitution’s proponents promised that this would not happen. As the losers in that debate, they are largely overlooked today. But that does not mean they were wrong or that we are not indebted to them.
In many ways, the group has been misnamed. Federalism refers to the system of decentralized government. This group defended states rights — the very essence of federalism — against the Federalists, who would have been more accurately described as Nationalists. Nonetheless, what the so-called Antifederalists predicted would be the results of the Constitution turned out to be true in most every respect.
The Antifederalists warned us that the cost Americans would bear in both liberty and resources for the government that would evolve under the Constitution would rise sharply. That is why their objections led to the Bill of Rights, to limit that tendency (though with far too little success that has survived to the present).”
Excellent and well-written comment KSW. My understanding is that the abrogation of the Articles of Confederation in a secret session was illegal. The desire for the Constitution, as we have it today, was a counter-revolution by those who feared the common man and wanted control of him and the machinations of government.
The counter-revolution has been wildly successful.
Thank you for the link, as well.
Thanks – I’m learning 🙂 I haven’t read the Anti-Federalist papers, so I’m wondering how the Anti-Federalists viewed the role of states, or even their existence. As I posted above, I’ve been reading about Austrian Economics – Free Market Capitalism and it seems the states are just mini-versions of federal gov’t.